The history, technology and application of 10 Gigabit Ethernet

The 10 Gigabit Ethernet standard has developed very rapidly since its birth in 2002, rapidly expanding from local area networks to campus networks, metropolitan area networks, data centers and other application environments. After five years of development, the 10G network has matured in terms of standards and management technology. Currently, in new fields such as storage and multimedia applications, 10 Gigabit Ethernet is replacing traditional network technology with higher performance, standards and manageability.
10G 10Gb Internet Ethernet PoE Switch Future of Network
After thirty years of development, Ethernet has become the most important IP bearer technology, accounting for more than 85% of network ports. Ethernet has experienced countless technical competitions in this process and continues to win. In the 10M/100M era, Ethernet eliminated technologies such as FDDI and TokenRing through standardization and low price, and established its dominance in desktop networks. In the 1000M era, Ethernet defeated ATM technology, gradually occupied a dominant position in the core of LAN and campus networks, and became the mainstream network construction technology of metropolitan area networks. Ethernet’s victory over ATM relies on high cost performance and simple protocols. Due to the overly complex implementation of ATM, many problems have arisen, such as difficulty in IP support, constant disputes over standards, high prices, and difficulty in bandwidth upgrades, so development has stagnated. During the same period, Ethernet was rapidly developing towards 10 Gigabit. In the 10G era, 10 Gigabit Ethernet has entered the metropolitan area network field, making all-Ethernet metropolitan area networks a trend. In the data center, Ethernet first replaced Gigabit and occupied the front-end data network, and then entered the storage network field to compete with 4G FC technology. With the advantages of high bandwidth, standardization, scalability, and high cost performance, it can be expected that Ethernet will win in the new round of competition. Ethernet is currently evolving at a higher speed. Although there is still some controversy over the standards of 40G and 100G, 100G Ethernet will be launched in 3-4 years, triggering a new bandwidth revolution. Key technologies of 10G network The key technology of the 10G network is not only 10G Ethernet but also management capabilities at the 10G level. 1. 10 Gigabit Ethernet standard 10G Ethernet was approved by IEEE in July 2002. 10G Ethernet includes 10GBASE-X, 10GBASE-R and 10GBASE-W. 10GBASE – /s speed (data flow speed is 2.5Gbit/s). 10GBASE-R is a serial interface using 64B/66B encoding (not the 8B/10B used in Gigabit Ethernet), with a data flow of 10.000Gbit/s, resulting in a clock rate of 10.3Gbit/s. 10GBASE-W is a wide area network interface, compatible with SONET OC-192, its clock is 9.953Gbit/s and the data stream is 9.585Gbit/s. 2. Management capabilities of 10G network In the early days of the commercialization of 10 Gigabit Ethernet, it mainly solved the problems of ports and connections. However, due to the single function of the chip, it could only realize basic forwarding, and it was difficult to realize intelligent network functions such as security, MPLS, QoS, and high reliability. In recent years, with the continuous improvement of ASIC and NP chips, 10 G-level intelligent network technology has gradually matured. 10G switches can still maintain 10G switching when activating functions such as MPLS, while 10G routers have stronger QoS and business upgrade capabilities. Bandwidth management and QoS: The current more effective strategy is large bandwidth + virtual channel + DiffServ. The combination of VLAN and MPLS technology realizes the virtualization channel of the network and then uses Diffserv to ensure the priority of the virtual channel. Some connection-oriented QoS technologies, such as traffic engineering, are currently not widely used because their implementation and management are too complex and difficult to deploy end-to-end. Security: 10 Gigabit-level security first requires switches/routers with powerful VLAN/MPLS/ACL processing capabilities built into their chips to provide business isolation, packet filtering, and line-speed switching. The security direction is to deploy 10 Gigabit-level security modules in some key locations of the network, such as network exits, data centers, etc. These modules will achieve four or seven layers of in-depth defense without affecting performance. High reliability: At the equipment level, current high-end equipment usually adopts carrier-grade designs; in terms of path protection, technologies such as RRPP, BFD, MPLS FRR, and OSPF FRR have been applied at different network levels, providing different levels of faults from 50ms to 800ms. Convergence ability. With the advantages of safety, reliability, high quality, and manageability, Ethernet not only wins the technical competition in LANs, campus networks, metropolitan area networks, and data centers but is also rapidly entering fields such as storage and video surveillance. Applications of 10G network The current application fields of 10G network mainly include local area networks, campus networks, metropolitan area networks, data centers, storage networks, video surveillance, and other fields. 1. LAN/campus network In the fields of local area networks and campus networks, 10G has replaced Gigabit as the backbone network and is currently moving towards the development of 10G to convergence and Gigabit to desktop. Factors for the expansion of LAN and campus network bandwidth include the rapid growth of video services and large-capacity databases; the popularity of computer Gigabit network cards; and the decline in the price of Gigabit switches (the current price is 130% of that of similar 100M switches). These factors have promoted the process of Gigabit to the desktop, and the deployment of a large number of Gigabit has promoted the development of the aggregation layer towards 10 Gigabit. 2. Metropolitan area network In metropolitan area networks, especially those of operators, 10G has been deployed in large quantities in core aggregation. At present, the metropolitan area network is evolving to carry multimedia and comprehensive information services. It is necessary to introduce some new access methods such as EPON and WiFi and optimize the metropolitan area network. The focus of optimization is not on bandwidth upgrades but on multi-service management and security protection. Currently, operators are building “traffic cleaning centers” and “application control” in their networks to provide security protection and business analysis for 10G. 3. Datacenter Data centers include local area networks and storage networks. The technology used in LAN is not significantly different from the aforementioned technology, just because the data center has higher requirements in terms of security and application support capabilities. There are several trends in the development of data center LANs: with the price reduction of 10G network cards, 10G will be directly connected to servers; 10G security technology will appear and be in key positions in the data center; application load balancing capabilities will reach 10G. The storage network in the data center is currently being IP-based and has been upgraded to 10 Gigabit bandwidth to connect storage and servers. In the future, the entire data center front and backend will adopt unified technical standards. 4. Storage network Storage is currently in an era of change, and both application models and technical systems are in a period of upgrading. In the past, storage was an isolated system hidden behind the server. Now applications such as personal data backup, shared disaster recovery, video surveillance, and WSAN are turning storage into a service in the network, moving from the backend to the frontend. These new applications are impacting the closed and unmanaged FC protocol system. On the other hand, the rapid growth of massive access and multimedia has put forward higher requirements for the bandwidth and IO capabilities of storage networks, and storage has become the final bottleneck in the IT infrastructure platform. IP networks are unifying the protocol system, eliminating system bottlenecks, and improving the service capabilities of storage systems. The launch of 10G storage will greatly accelerate this process. 5. Video surveillance The video surveillance network used to be an analog system that used video optical transceivers, video, and other technologies. It lacked unified technical standards and was very difficult to expand and manage. It could only support dozens or more than a hundred monitoring points at most. With the rise of urban video surveillance, the system needs to support thousands, tens of thousands or even hundreds of thousands of monitoring points, and analog network technology can no longer support it. IP surveillance has become mainstream, and 10G networks have begun to enter video bearer networks and video storage networks on a large scale. The 10G Ethernet switches offer high-speed data transmission, low latency, and increased bandwidth capacity. They can handle multiple simultaneous high-bandwidth tasks without compromising network performance. If you’re looking to upgrade your network to 10G speed. We actmtech can be your reliable partner. Our 2.5G 10G l3 managed Ethernet PoE switches can assist you in enhancing your current network infrastructure.

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